Review of Atomic structure   Basic Electronics Concept    Intermediate Electronics
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Home > Intermediate Electronics > Diode > Review of Atomic structure
Review of Atomic structure

The behavior of atoms of a material in presence of electric and magnetic field or magnetic filed depends upon atomic structure. Since semiconductor devices make use of germanium and silicon as base material, we will discuss about these materials.

Let us first consider atomic structure of germanium
The nucleus of germanium consists of 32 protons and 41 neutrons. The mass of protons and neutrons is approximately 1850 times as large as that of the electron.

The four orbit contain 32 electrons in the following manner:

1st orbit 2 electrons
2nd orbit  8 electrons 3 subshells
3rd orbit 18 electrons 3 subshells
4th orbit 4 electrons 4 subshells

  
   
 

 


                                    -31
Mass of Electrons = 9.11 x 10 kg.

                                           
                           -19
Charge of Electron = 1.6 x 10 coulomb.

The shells fill up from the centre, until a number of electrons equal to the number of protons are reached. The atom as a whole is intrinsically neutral.

However, the fourth shell that could hold 32 electrons has only 4 electrons in it. This outer shell, often called the Valence Shell determines how the atom will bond or react with other atoms.

Diodes can be used as voltage regulators, tuning devices in rf tuned circuits, frequency multiplying devices in rf circuits, mixing devices in rf circuits, switching applications or can be used to make logic decisions in digital circuits.

Diodes can be used as voltage regulators, tuning devices in rf tuned circuits, frequency multiplying devices in rf circuits, mixing devices in rf circuits, switching applications or can be used to make logic decisions in digital circuits.

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